Glossary

Woman Black and WhiteAcoustic noise – One of the most common patient complaints with MR. Toshiba’s PianissimoTM technology reduces acoustic noise by 90 percent when compared to conventional MRI systems.

Artifacts – Affect the quality of the MRI exam and image quality. For example, breathing motion, patient motion and flow are things that can create artifacts.

Bariatric patients – A term used to describe patients who are overweight to obese and therefore difficult to image due to large body mass.

Peripheral Vascular Run-off – Imaging technique where contrast is injected into the arteries of a patient and the MR table moves in stations to follow the contrast as it travels from the abdomen down to the legs. It is often used to evaluate peripheral vascular disease.

Bore – The diameter or opening of an MRI system. The open-bore of the Vantage Titan MR system is 18 percent larger than other 1.5T systems on the market and features a large 71-centimeter patient aperture.

CIA: Contrast-Free Improved Angiography – CIA is the latest generation of contrast-free applications with easier acquisition and superior imaging of smaller vessels. This technique adds systolic black blood imaging to reduce ghosting and improve arterial and venous flow separation. CIA expands the window of opportunity for evaluating early disease states.

Claustrophobia – Persistent fear of closed spaces or being "closed in." Patients can feel claustrophobic in traditional MRI systems.

Clinical Field-of-View (FOV) – The size of an image generated by a MR system. The Vantage Titan has the largest available clinical field-of-view (FOV) of 55 x 55 x 50 centimeters, providing the highest level of patient care and diagnostic capability in MR imaging.

Coil – A receiver that is placed next to the part of the body being imaged. There are specialized coils made for shoulders, knees, wrists and many other body parts. The coil emits a radiofrequency that makes MRI possible.

Contrast Agent – Contrast media is a substance introduced into the body to provide additional contrast resolution to specific anatomies, for example, between blood vessels and other tissue.

Contrast-Free Imaging Techniques – Toshiba’s proprietary contrast-free MRA techniques are Fresh Blood Imaging (FBI), Contrast-free Improved Angiography (CIA), Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse (Time-SLIP) and Time and Space Angiography (TSA). These contrast-free protocols allow physicians to perform scans on patients with known renal compromise and diabetes without using contrast agents, which are potentially dangerous to these patients.

Cryogenless Superconducting Magnet – Developed in 1997 by Toshiba, the MRI magnet features the highest magnetic field strength available. This technology enables high-resolution imaging and applications, such as acute stroke imaging which is usually associated with a high-field system.

Diagnostic Imaging – A general term for radiology tests that enable clinicians to see inside a patient’s body. Diagnostic imaging exams can be performed by using a variety of diagnostic imaging technologies, including CT, MRI, X-ray, and ultrasound.

Diagnostic Tests – Tests performed to determine what is ailing a patient or to plan treatment.

Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) – offers major advantages over conventional MR imaging, including reduced imaging time, decreased motion artifact, and the ability to image rapid physiologic processes of the human body. The use of echo-planar imaging has already resulted in significant advances in clinical diagnosis and scientific investigation, such as in evaluation of stroke and functional imaging of the human brain, respectively.

Fat Saturation – A specialized technique that selectively saturates fat protons prior to acquiring data as in standard sequences, so they produce negligible signal. The pre-saturation pulse is applied prior to each slice selection. This technique requires a very homogeneous magnetic field and very precise frequency calibration and makes it possible for large or obese patients to be imaged. Toshiba’s Fat Saturation is particularly robust because it is slice selective.

FBI: Fresh Blood Imaging – With exceptional sensitivity to slow flow, FBI is particularly well-suited for evaluating peripheral vascular diseases of the lower legs and extremities without the use of contrast agents. It acquires arterial and venous flow in a single coronal pass requiring less scan time than other MRA techniques. FBI also eliminates sensitivity to issues like improper timing, turbulent flow and differential filling that can cause contrast-based MRA to fail.

Gadolinium – The most common contrast agent used for MR exams. It has been directly linked to a potentially fatal disease that has occurred in patients with renal insufficiency, called Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) or Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy (NFD).

Gantry – The gantry accommodates a static field magnet configured to generate a static field, a gradient coil configured to generate a gradient magnetic field, and an RF coil configured to transmit or receive an RF pulse as well as having an opening into which a person is inserted.

Gradient Strength – The amplitude of the gradient field (measured in mT/m).

Homogeneity – The uniformity of the main magnetic field measured in parts per million. In a defined volume it is the difference between maximum and minimum field strength, multiplied by 1 million. In MR, the homogeneity of the static magnetic field is an important criterion of the quality of the magnet.

Image Acquisition Time – The time it takes to acquire a single sequence during an MRI procedure. Many MR exams average from 4 to 6 sequences. The additional image reconstruction time is also important to determine how quickly a physician can view the image.

Localization – Limiting the scan to a defined area of the body. Such as when localizing an area of pathology or evaluating specific anatomy for treatment response.

Magnetic Field – A powerful energy generated by a magnet used in MRI. Because strong magnetic fields can disrupt the action of implanted metallic objects, people with cardiac pacemakers cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI area. The effects of strong magnetic fields on a fetus are not well documented at this time so pregnant women are usually advised to avoid MRI scans, unless the benefit outweighs the risk.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – An exam that enables physicians to see inside the body without using X-rays. MRI creates images by using radio waves, a computer and a powerful magnet approximately 7,000-times stronger than the magnetic force of the earth.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) – A type of MR scan that is optimized to show blood vessels and blood flow. Physicians use the test to rule out blood vessel disorders and plan for treatment.

Neurological Disorder – Disorder of the nerves or the nervous system.

Pianissimo™ – Toshiba's patented noise reduction technology for its MR systems. The breakthrough Pianissimo technology reduces acoustic noise by 90 percent when compared to conventional MR systems. This makes an MR examination a very quiet and patient-friendly experience.

Pixel – The smallest element or discrete part of a digital image display.

Radiologist – The medical doctor who interprets diagnostic images, including CT, MRI, ultrasound and X-ray.

Radiance Plus Breast Imaging Package – Available on the Vantage MR system, the advanced sequences available with Radiance Plus Breast Imaging package combine morphologic and dynamic imaging techniques to provide comprehensive implant and cancer diagnostic capabilities. These options include Quick 3D imaging, Fat Free imaging, silicone-only imaging, water-only imaging and high-resolution dynamic axial and sagittal techniques. Utilizing Toshiba’s Enhanced Fat Sat technique, they produce equal signal strength throughout all breast tissue regardless of size, shape or fat concentration.

Radiance Plus Breast Imaging Coil – Provides high temporal and spatial resolution for dynamic analysis and lesion characterization. The coil delivers a high signal-to-noise ratio, significantly increasing the breast image quality. The Radiance Plus Breast Imaging Coil is an addition to existing Vantage coils which are uniquely designed to improve workflow and patient comfort.

Real Time – As it pertains to diagnostic imaging, a physician views the image continuously and instantaneously during an exam.

Scan – To take a computerized image using an MR system. Scan also describes the computerized pictures that result from the exam.

Single-Shot EPI Diffusion – A powerful imaging tool for assessment of strokes, tumors and vascular disorders.

Software – The set of instructions or programs that controls the activities of the computer.

SPEEDER Technology – Toshiba’s patented parallel imaging technology for high-speed imaging. SPEEDER reduces exam time for cardiology studies by a factor of up to 16 while enabling clinicians to capture high-quality images with detailed diagnostic information. With SPEEDER, cardiac and MRA exams are more patient-friendly and tolerable with shorter exam times and improved image quality.

Tesla (T) – The IS (International System) unit of magnetic field strength.

Time-SLIP: Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse – Time-SLIP is a useful contrast-free technique for evaluating hemodynamic velocity, functional assessments, and visualization of vascular structures. It reveals regions excited as bright or black blood and can be used with FASE or TRUESSFP sequences in gated, two- and three-dimensional acquisitions.

TSA: Time Space Angiography – The second generation of Time-SLIP and fourth generation of non-contrast techniques. This Time-SLIP based technique, utilizes variable BB-T1 times to create non-contrast time-resolved imaging with high temporal resolution and useful for imaging blood flow in the head and neck.

TrueSSFP – A fast imaging process that provides high contrast in spine imaging.

Vascular Disease – Disease of the blood vessels. As a group, blood vessels are referred to as the vascular system.
 

 
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